Jul 27, · The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the 12 cranial nerves. Its main function is transmitting sensory information to the skin, sinuses, and mucous membranes in the face. It also stimulates. Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition characterized by pain coming from the trigeminal nerve, which affects the face — most commonly one side of the jaw or cheek. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is unlike facial pain caused by other problems.